Cybersecurity Glossary

View the glossary of security terms that may be helpful.

  • It is a computer program specifically designed for detect, to block and to delete catty code (virus, Trojan, maggots, etc.), as well as to protect other dangerous programmes' teams acquaintances generically as malware.

  • An attack that tries all possible password combinations until it finds the correct one.

  • A copy of the files or applications on a computer for the purpose of recovering data if the information on a system is damaged or the stored data is accidentally lost.

  • It is a periodically updated website that it compiles chronologically texts or articles of one or more authors, appearing first the most recent one, where the author conserve always the freedom of leaving published which it creates pertinent. This English end blog or weblog comes of the words website and log (‘log’ in English = daily).

  • An error or fault in a device programme or software system that triggers an undesired result.

  • Also known as cyber harassment. The use of telematic means (mainly the internet, mobile phones and online videogames) to carry out psychological bullying between peers. It is not strictly sexual harassment or abuse, nor cases in which older persons are involved.

  • A mathematical operation or function used in combination with a password that guarantees the confidentiality and integrity of the information.

  • A collection of tools or measures that can be taken to prevent underage children making improper use of a computer, accessing inappropriate content or exposing themselves to online risk.

  • A cookie is a small file that stores information sent by a website and is stored in our computer, so that the website can consult the user's previous activity to understand some of their preferences.

  • Set of strategies undertaken by an adult to gain the trust of a minor over the internet with the final aim of obtaining favours of a sexual nature.

  • A malicious program (or malware), the main feature of which is its ability to replicate itself and quickly spread to other computers. Whereas Trojans depend on a user accessing a malicious website or executing an infected file, worms make copies of themselves, infect other computers and spread automatically across a network, regardless of human actions.

  • A term used to define a person with considerable knowledge of computer technology and telecommunications who uses that knowledge for purposes that may or may not be malignant or illegal. The action of using this knowledge is known as hacking. The term “hacker” usually has a derogatory or negative connotation, as it is related to illegal tasks. In Spanish, computer hackers who make malicious use of their knowledge are called "piratas informáticos".

  • False information sent to thousands of internet users. In many cases it includes malicious software and in others the aim is to create mass email chains (users receive the message and resend it to their contacts).

  • Persuasion techniques used to obtain information of a sensitive nature, often a person's passwords or codes. These tactics usually take advantage of the victim's good intentions and lack of security precautions.

  • Software or hardware that can intercept and record keystrokes made on an infected computer. They compile everything we write and save it in a file or send it automatically by email.

  • A type of software designed to damage or infiltrate a computer system without its owner's consent. This definition includes a wide range of malicious programs: viruses, worms, trojans, backdoors, spyware, etc. The common factor of all these programs is their harmful or damaging nature.

  • A loss of network connection caused intentionally by a person. A computer subject to a nuke attack may also be blocked.

  • A set of files added to the original software of a computer tool or program in order to resolve possible deficiencies, vulnerabilities or operational defects.

  • Phishing consists of the mass sending of messages that appear to come from a secure source with the aim of fraudulently obtaining confidential information (passwords, bank details, etc.). The fraudster takes over the identity of a person or company so that the receiver of the apparently official electronic communication (via email, fax, SMS or telephone) believes it to be genuine and facilitates personal data of interest to the fraudster.

  • They are those programmes that they compile details on navigational, preferences and tastes habits of the user, for then to send them to a remote company without our consent.

  • A type of malware that takes control of an infected computer and prevents the user accessing their information by encrypting it. The cyber criminal demands a ransom for freeing up the information.

  • Sending content of a sexual nature (usually photographs and/or videos), normally created by the sender themselves, to other people by computer or mobile phone.

  • A form of sexual exploitation in which a person is blackmailed over a naked picture of themselves that has been shared on the internet through sexting.

  • A program that monitors web traffic with the aim of intercepting and capturing information.

  • Unsolicited messages, usually with advertising content, sent in mass emailings.

  • A malicious activity in which an attacker impersonates another person to commit some type of fraud, harassment, cyberbullying, etc. For example, creating a profile of another person on social media and interacting with other users while pretending to be that person.

  • An apparently harmless programme that installs itself and carries out actions without the consent of the system's owner.

  • These programs can infect computers and computer systems in various ways and causes annoying, harmful and even destructive and irreparable effects

  • Security faults or gaps detected in a program that are exploited by a virus.

  • Vulnerabilities in systems or programs that are only known to certain attackers and that manufacturers and users are unaware of. As the manufacturers are unaware of them, no security patch will have been issued to fix them. Therefore, they are very dangerous as the attacker can exploit them without the user being aware that they are vulnerable.

  • The name given to a computer that has been infected by malware and is being controlled remotely by a cybercriminal. Zombie computers are controlled through the use of bots (a set of computers controlled remotely by an attacker that can be combined to undertake malicious activities such as denial of service attacks)